The mycalesine butterfly genus Heteropsis Westwood, 1850 (Satyrinae: Mycalesina) has recently been conceived to be represented in three major palaeotropical regions (Madagascar, Africa and Asia), but there has been no formal taxonomic treatment covering this entire group. Studies aimed at understanding the evolutionary success of Mycalesina in the Old World tropics have been hampered by the lack of both a robust phylogeny and a stable nomenclature for this satyrine subtribe. Here, we present a well-supported molecular phylogeny based on 10 genes and 133 exemplar taxa, representing almost all known species groups of Heteropsis (s.l.), and including all but four known species in Madagascar. We also combine sequences of the exemplars with a morphological matrix of 428 characters. The widespread ‘Heteropsis clade’ is confirmed as monophyletic, but lineages in different geographic regions also form endemic and well-supported clades with deep divergences among them. Here we establish this group as comprising three genera, Heteropsis (Malagasy region only), Telinga Moore, 1880 (Asia), and Brakefieldia gen.n. (Africa). We recover the genera Telinga and Brakefieldia as sisters with high support. Each genus is taxonomically characterized and a revised synonymic checklist is appended with new combinations and some changes in rank. With a well-resolved topology and updates to the taxonomy of the group, researchers are now in a position to explore the drivers of the spectacular radiation of the group, notably in Madagascar, where the highest phenotypic and species diversity occurs.
This published work has been registered in ZooBank, http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:AAF9F440-A2D6-4483-BF35-9BC074D9D29B.
|syen12183-sup-0001-FileS1.xlsExcel spreadsheet, 41.3 KB||File S1. Table of vouchers and their accession numbers. In this table, morphospecies are given as numbers, which correspond to suffixes of the ms names in the trees Figures. 1–3, and letter codes correspond with the total-evidence-morphology tree in Lees (1997: 156). Species labelled ‘ms’ are names available in Lees, 2016. Exemplar taxa with names starting with ‘xx_” and in black (e.g. xx_Brakefieldia_elisi) are taxa that were missed in the molecular phylogenies and here fit into the combined phylogeny using only morphological data, or combined with a very short fragment of some genes (*denotes taxa that were considered rogue in the molecular phylogenetic analyses).|
|syen12183-sup-0002-FileS2.docWord document, 91 KB||File S2. Taxonomic details for the genera Heteropsis, Brakefieldia and Telinga.|
|syen12183-sup-0003-FileS3.docWord document, 66 KB||File S3. Synonymic checklist for the ‘Heteropsis clade’ encompassing all taxa in the genera Heteropsis, Brakefieldia and Telinga.|
|syen12183-sup-0004-FileS4.pdfPDF document, 7.3 KB||File S4. (MrBayes) Bayesian inference tree based on 428 morphological characters of the genera Heteropsis, Brakefieldia and Telinga. The colour-coded branches represent the three genera (blue, Brakefieldia; red, Telinga; green, Heteropsis) within the ‘Heteropsis clade’.|
|syen12183-sup-0005-FileS5.docWord document, 39 KB||File S5. Details of ten primer-pairs used in the study and the thermal profile used of the polymerase chain reactions (PCRs).|
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